CHARISMA is designed to offer low-latency networking within the 5G-PPP key performance indicator (KPI) target of 1-10 ms latency time. This has been achieved via a number of different technological approaches and technology solutions. The first aspect is fulfilled by our adoption of a hierarchical architecture, where data is always routed, where possible, at the lowest common aggregation point or flexibility node. This means that for device-to-device (D2D) communications, data is routed directly between the devices, whereas routing at the next lowest CHARISMA Aggregation Level (CAL), e.g. at CAL0, means the data is routed between devices via the local (e.g. home or access) gateway. Alternatively, for devices within a micro-cell, routing is via the CAL1 level; within a macro-cell, it is via the CAL2 level, e.g. at the macro base station or active remote node; and finally for non-local routing, this is performed at the CAL3 level, or at the central office.
In terms of the technological solutions to assist in meeting the 1-10 ms KPI target, we have adopted three innovative technologies: (i) TrustNode router using 6Tree routing algorithm (developed by InnoRoute); (ii) SmartNIC card for accelerated data routing and offloading (developed by Ethernity Networking); (iii) MoBcache for local caching at the various CAL levels, which allows data to be accessed ever closer to the end-user, so as to reduce the latency between a data request and the reception of the data.
Finally, CHARISMA has also been designed to feature very high bandwith access, conforming to the 5G-PPP KPI of 1-10 Gb/s to end-users. Such high bandwidth capacity has implications both for the edge and backhauling transport of aggregated data streams. For high capacity at the edge, CHARISMA has developed millimetre wave (mmW) technology at 60-GHz frequencies, enabling up to 10 Gb/s final-drop data rates to a single user. At the backhaul, CHARISMA has developed a 100G OFDM-PON (orthogonal frequency division multiplexed passive optical network) technology solution, where a single wavelength can carry up to 100 Gb/s data. Multiple wavelengths (e.g. 4, or 16) can therefore transport 400 Gb/s up to 1.6 Tb/s from the edge to the central office.